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From the Vault: The Beauty and Harmony of Shape Note Songbooks

By Hannah Arnett, September 26, 2017

Want to know what’s behind our closed museum vault door? With this occasional series, we take you behind the scenes to learn more about some of the interesting objects in our museum collections. 

This Saturday, September 30, the Birthplace of Country Music Museum will be hosting a Shape Note Sing led by The Old Field Singers, an event that is free and open to the public – no singing experience necessary!

This event also provides us with a great opportunity to share part of our collection with you: shape note hymnals from the 1950s and 1960s, gifted to the museum by Dorothy Horne in memory of her mother, Ruth Hamm. I didn’t know much about shape notes before I did some research, but goodness, you don’t grow up Baptist without knowing somebody that remembers singing with shape notes. And I promise you, they’ll tell you all about it if you get them started.

The use of shape notes is rooted in the pre-Civil War South, and if you trace those roots back even further, you’ll find yourself in Great Awakening-era New England – though that’s a completely different blog post. For readers that don’t know, shape notes are a method of musical notation in which each tone is given a distinct shape and syllable to represent it. There are all sorts of shape note traditions, but Sacred Harp and Christian Harmony may be the most well known. The Sacred Harp tradition of shape note singing uses four syllables – fa, sol, la, mi – and four shapes. Christian Harmony – the tradition of The Old Fields Singers – uses seven shapes and seven syllables: do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti. Both schools are named for the “tunebooks” associated with them.  If you want to learn more about the particulars of shape notes, this site may be a good place to start.

A scale from Vaughn’s Up-To-Date Rudiments and Music Reader. © James D. Vaughn, 1951; photo © Birthplace of Country Music; gift of Dorothy Horne in memory of Ruth Hamm

Vaughn’s Up-To-Date Rudiments and Music Reader was one of the songbooks used by Ruth Hamm when she attended J. M. Dixon’s singing school in Kingsport, Tennessee. Mr. Dixon’s singing school was part of a larger shape note tradition. In the mid-19th century, singing schools sponsored by local singing conventions gained popularity in the south. These sorts of schools used a seven-shape system and relied on “little-books.” James D. Vaughn and Stamps-Baxter music publishing companies were popular suppliers of these kinds of songbooks. They also supplied the bulk of Mrs. Hamm’s collection!

Mrs. Hamm, according to her daughter, sang her entire life. “Mom grew up singing,” Horne remembers. “Her father sang in a quartet. She sang in a quartet, and she took us with her on the practice sessions and all of the places they sang. She later sang with the Happy Day Singers at the Senior Center here in Kingsport.” Throughout her singing career, Mrs. Hamm accumulated a variety of songbooks – 43 of which are now in our collection. They contain some of the most recognizable sacred songs in the south (and anywhere, for that matter): “Victory in Jesus,” “Rock of Ages,” and of course, “Amazing Grace,” to name only a few. Horne has a special connection with one songbook in particular. “My favorite songbook is Lasting Glory and the song I remember so much is ‘I Feel Like Traveling On,’” she recalls. “It is on page 29.  I can [still] see Mr. Dixon leading that song.”

The songbooks pictured here feature some of our favorite covers – you have to love their colorful, mid-century aesthetic! Songbooks © Stamps-Baxter Music Company and © James D. Vaughn; photo © Birthplace of Country Music

Mrs. Hamm’s songbooks have been through a lot. They’ve been worn all around the edges, marked on, and creased, and some have even had a run-in with water. Those imperfections are part of what makes these songbooks so special: it’s apparent that they’ve been used over and over again. They are well loved. They tell us that singing with these hymnals was an important part of Mrs. Hamm’s life – and likewise, the lives of many that sang by shape notes throughout this region. For those that sang with shape notes, attending singing schools and community sings were once an integral part of keeping in touch with your neighbors. Some sources even indicate that the possibility of courting drew in young members – if they weren’t already “drew in” by their parents.

Community-driven shape note singing in the 1950s and 1960s saw a decline after gospel quartet performances became popular. Although the act of singing in church is still an essential part of the religious experience, there are not anywhere near as many singing schools as there once were. Don Wiley, leader of the Old Fields Singers, notes: “Although opportunities exist today, folks lead busy, even frantic lives.” Those busy days unfortunately mean that shape note singing isn’t as much a part of people’s lives now.

The social aspect of shape note singing might seem irrelevant in this age of social media, where people have more convenient ways to catch up with friends and can “court” with a few swipes on their phones. I asked Wiley what he thought the “most important” reason to continue the tradition of shape note singing was. Wiley gave me an interesting answer: “I can’t do ‘most important’…it seems that the singing itself either strikes a chord inside a person, or not.”

If you do some digging on YouTube, or better yet, join us at the Shape Note Sing on Saturday, I can almost guarantee you that the chord Wiley speaks of will resonate in you. There’s something irresistible about voices raised in gorgeous harmony, led only by a conductor and printed shapes on a page.

The Old Fields Singers and visitors at past Shape Note Sings in the museum. The event always includes the social aspect of a potluck lunch during the noon break! © Birthplace of Country Music

Hannah Arnett was an intern at the Birthplace of Country Music Musem in the summer of 2017. She is a senior museum studies and history student at Tusculum College, set to graduate in December 2017. You can learn more about Saturday’s Shape Note Sing here.

Frames for Reference

By René Rodgers and Emily Robinson

Each year, the month of May is designated as National Photograph Month. In this day and age, every single day seems like it is devoted to photographs, as we are all constantly shooting pics on our phones — and finding our storage full of photographs of the minutiae of our lives.

With a museum devoted to the history and legacy of early commercial country music, a music festival in its 17th year, and a radio station on air each day, the Birthplace of Country Music is now the repository of a wonderful variety of digital and physical images. To mark National Photograph Month, we wanted to share just a few of our favorites from our collections:

Donated by the family of Karl Smith

Tennessee Ernie Ford on South Holston Lake, Bristol, Tennessee-Virginia

Ernest Jennings Ford – better known by his stage persona, Tennessee Ernie Ford – was born in Bristol, Tennessee, on February 13, 1919. Ford was a star behind the mic and on screen, and he was awarded three Hollywood Walk of Fame stars for his achievements in radio, recording, and television. During the height of his career, a visit from Ford to his hometown was an occasion for celebration, including a presentation of the key to the city, press meet-and-greets, and parades on State Street. Locals remember the times they met Ford on his returns to Bristol and speak fondly of his genuineness, his reverence and love for his hometown and the Appalachian area, and his star quality.

For Ford, coming home also meant being himself. He spent much of his life in front of an audience or a camera, but what he truly loved was getting back to his rural roots and enjoying the outdoors – at his ranch, in the woods, and on the water. This photograph, taken by his friend Karl Smith, shows him fishing from a boat on South Holston Lake, perhaps even catching his dinner!

© Birthplace of Country Music, photographer: Billie Wheeler

Jesse McReynolds on Farm and Fun Time

In February 2017, Jesse McReynolds appeared on Radio Bristol’s Farm and Fun Time show, broadcast live from the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. On August 1, 1927, his grandfather Charles played the fiddle with the Bull Mountain Moonshiners as they recorded two songs for Ralph Peer at the Bristol Sessions. McReynolds followed in his grandfather’s musical footsteps, establishing a successful bluegrass career in a duo with his brother Jim and then as a solo musician – singing and playing fiddle and mandolin. McReynolds played his grandfather’s fiddle at the February radio show, bringing its history full circle – from its time at the 1927 Bristol Session to its place on stage at the Birthplace of Country Music. And at the age of 87, McReynolds’s hands show the strength and skill bought from a lifetime of playing.

Robert Alexander Collection, Birthplace of Country Music Museum

Johnny Cash at the Carter Family Fold, Hiltons, Virginia

This photograph of Johnny Cash is full of energy – he’s seen here dancing at the Carter Festival in Hiltons, Virginia. Photographer Robert Alexander gives some insight into the image:

“[This photograph was] taken in August 1977 at the 50th anniversary of the Bristol Recordings held at the Carter Fold. After performing with June Carter on stage, Johnny changed out of his black outfit into informal clothes and danced a bit with the festivalgoers. This particular photograph was taken moments before he did a 360 cartwheel in front of the stage. I missed that shot.”

The Carter Festival was originated by Janette Carter in 1975 as a memorial festival in honor of her father A. P. Carter and is held annually at the Carter Family Fold. Johnny Cash married Maybelle Carter’s daughter June in 1968, and they came often to the Carter Family Fold to perform and revel in the music made there.

Bill Mountjoy Collection, Birthplace of Country Music Museum

Photograph from WOPI scrapbook

Bill Mountjoy was a disc jockey, engineer, reporter, and executive for several radio stations in Northeast Tennesee, Southwest Virginia, and the Washington DC suburbs, including local station WOPI in Bristol. At the time of his death in April 2014, he owned Custom Audio/Video Services of Elizabethton, Tennessee.

We are fortunate to have Mr. Mountjoy’s scrapbook from his time at WOPI in our collections. It is full of wonderful memories and, like all scrapbooks, a few mysterious unlabeled photos, like this one from inside a lingerie store. Take a closer look at the banner and you can see that the store is running a “WOPI Special!” We don’t know what the radio station has to do with unmentionables, but we are intrigued… If you have any memories of this sale and can shed some light, let us know!

© Birthplace of Country Music, photographer: Haley Hensley

Boo Hanks and Dom Flemons at Bristol Rhythm & Roots Reunion

Boo Hanks, an acoustic guitarist with roots in Piedmont string band and blues traditions, learned the music he loved to play from his father and by listening to the records of Blind Boy Fuller. He passed away at the age of 87 on April 15, 2016. Hanks is seen here with his friend and musical collaborator Dom Flemons when they played together at Bristol Rhythm & Roots Reunion in 2015. This intimate shot hints at the close friendship between the two men.

Emily Robinson is the Collections Manager and René Rodgers is the Curator of Exhibits & Publications, both at the Birthplace of Country Music Museum.